Seaweed (Marine Macroalgae):
Seaweed is an abundant natural source of peptides, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals - that have clinically proven, safe, effective anti-aging and skin rejuvenating properties.
There are three main types of seaweed: red, brown and green - each with its own unique bio-active compounds that help protect the skin.
Red Seaweed (Palmaria Palmata):
Brown Seaweed (Bladderwrack, Kelp, Ascophyllum Nodosum):
Blue-green algae (aphanizomenon flos-aquae) is a wild microalgae that contains a broad spectrum of important phytonutrients. It is an excellent source of more than 20 antioxidants, 68 minerals and 70 trace elements, fatty acids, vitamins, amino acids (including all essential) and enzymes. A high bio-active density with synergistic effects, in addition to ease of absorption, enables blue-green algae to provide maximum relief to the skin. A powerful cosmetic ingredient, this algae is packed with all of the necessary nutrients to deliver superior, long-lasting skin toning and restorative benefits. Our skincare formulation of blue-green algae helps to detoxify and replenish your skin, purifying and restoring the skin’s vitality, and revealing a more radiant, youthful-looking complexion with the appearance of fewer fine lines and wrinkles.
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG), present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the epidermis and dermis. It is the key factor responsible for skin hydration, because of its unique capacity to bind and retain water molecules. Aging is associated with reduced HA levels and loss of moisture in the skin.Topical application of HA restores this protective layer, helping skin appear softer and feel smoother to touch. In human clinical trials, HA-containing cosmetic products significantly improve skin hydration, roughness and elasticity, achieving proven anti-wrinkle and rejuvenating effects. HA is an essential, safe and effective element of our daily skin repair ritual.
Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) is an important component of the body’s co-enzyme system. These molecules are essential to many cellular metabolic processes. In the skin, such chemical reactions are crucial for retaining moisture, maintaining oil balance, and improving microcirculation.
Niacinamide increases production of epidermal skin barrier lipids (ceramides, free fatty acids and cholesterol), decreases sebum production (making skin less oily and acne-prone), and blocks the transfer of pigment (melanosomes) from melanocytes to keratinocytes (i.e., depigmenting effect). The latter action distinguishes niacinamide from other “brightening” compounds that directly inhibit tyrosinase (a key enzyme in melanin production).
Topical application of niacinamide significantly reduces transepidermal water loss and increases stratum corneum hydration. Studies support the use of niacinamide in cosmetic formulations, because of its clinically relevant barrier-protective, anti-inflammatory and skin brightening benefits.
Retinoids (Vitamin A):
Retinoids encourage skin cell turnover and epidermal regeneration, helping to enhance skin texture and elasticity, while reducing hyperpigmentation and other signs of photoaging. Vitamin A is an important constituent of the outer skin layer, where it plays a crucial role in epidermal cell turnover and renewal. Exposure to sunlight and the aging process can lead to deficiency of epidermal vitamin A. The addition of vitamin A acts to reduce the signs of photoaging and promotes skin rejuvenation. Combining retinoids with antioxidants increase their beneficial effects in the skin, leading to improved skin appearance.
An antioxidant is any substance that reduces oxidative damage caused by free radicals to cells and their constituents. Free radicals are highly reactive chemical molecules which attack DNA, proteins and cell membranes. Any compound in the body that contains an oxygen molecule (reactive oxygen species), such as hydrogen peroxide, can trigger free radical production. This destructive process occurs many thousand times each day in our body - resulting in damage that impairs cell function, metabolism and growth.
To protect cells against damage by free radicals, our bodies have evolved a highly sophisticated and complex antioxidant protection system. This process functions synergistically to neutralize reactive oxygen species. There are four main types of antioxidants:
Both exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and chronologic aging deplete our skin's naturally occurring antioxidants, which are used to defend against free radical attacks. Free radical damage leads to the breakdown of dermal collagen fibers, with the development of fine lines, wrinkles and other cutaneous signs of aging. Topical application of antioxidants has been scientifically proven to provide protection from sun-induced skin damage, slowing down the aging process, and ultimately improving the skin’s overall appearance.
Normal, youthful skin contains high concentrations of vitamin C, stimulating dermal collagen synthesis and protecting against UV-induced injury. It is known that vitamin C levels are lower in aged or photodamaged cells, associated with excessive exposure to stress via pollutants or solar irradiation. Studies have shown that use of vitamin C derivatives stimulates regeneration of healthy skin - improving the appearance of wrinkles and other features of photo-damage, promoting wound healing, and decreasing melanin pigment synthesis leading to brighter looking skin.
Human skin contains more vitamin E than any other nutrient. This highlights the importance of this essential antioxidant, which renders free radicals harmless, absorbs UVB light and decreases DNA damage. Combining topical vitamin E and vitamin C enhances the photoprotective effect of sunscreen use. In addition to supporting and hydrating cells, vitamin E plays a synergistic role with vitamin C in the synthesis of dermal collagen, helping to smooth fine lines and even skin tone.
Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring xanthophyll carotenoid that is found in crustaceans (lobsters, shrimps and crabs) and fish (salmon). It is one of nature's most potent antioxidants - neutralizing free radicals and other oxidants. In terms of antioxidant power, astaxanthin is 6,000 times stronger than vitamin C, 800 times stronger than CoQ10, 550 times stronger than vitamin E and green tea catechins, and 40 times more powerful than beta-carotene. Astaxanthin exerts its beneficial effects on the skin via potent antioxidant, photo-protective (UV-blocking) and anti-inflammatory actions. In several clinical studies, astaxanthin has been shown to increase skin hydration and elasticity, reduce erythema, decrease hyperpigmentation, and promote skin smoothness, by diminishing fine lines and wrinkles.
Resveratrol is a polyphenol produced by plants as a defense mechanism against UV radiation, stress and disease. Natural sources include the skin of grapes, various berries, peanuts, pomegranate, and eucalyptus. Resveratrol exerts powerful antioxidant and anti-aging effects by scavenging existing free radicals and preventing their formation.
Studies have shown that the antioxidant activity of Resveratrol is greater than that of vitamin C, vitamin E, and other antioxidants, validating its use as an active ingredient in anti-aging skincare products.
Resveratrol shields the dermal collagen matrix from harmful free radical damage - improving the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, enhancing skin hydration, reducing skin dryness and roughness, and smoothing skin texture.
Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant, naturally found in human cells and comprised of 3 amino acids (cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid). It functions to neutralize free radicals, stimulate the immune system and detoxify the body. Glutathione has additional anti-melanogenic properties - inhibiting tyrosinase (a key enzyme in skin pigment production), via direct inhibition and indirect inactivation. Topical use of glutathione has been shown to reduce pigmentation and improve moisture levels in the skin.
Green tea extracts (GTE) contain catechin-derived polyphenols (such as epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatequina gelato, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate). These antioxidant polyphenols have excellent skin penetration and retention, and are known to be potent free radical scavengers. GTE also inhibit the more acute results of UV exposure, including erythema (redness) and inflammation. Additional moisturizing and protective effects are provided by other ingredients present in GTE, such as amino acids, lipids (linoleic and linolenic acids), vitamins (B, C and E), caffeine, and pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoids). Clinical studies have shown that cosmetic formulations containing GTE restore skin texture and appearance, increase elasticity, and enhance immediate and long-term hydration. This important moisturizing benefit of GTE improves surface microrelief, with reduced roughness and enhanced skin smoothness.
A wild-growing herb (Plantago major) found in most gardens (not to be confused with the green skinned cousin of bananas!). Plantain possesses strong natural antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties. It has a long history in herbal medicine and use as a traditional cure for a variety of skin conditions, including sunburns, eczema and other skin disorders. Plantain extract contains Allantoin, a powerful skin soothing agent that encourages cell growth.
Hibiscus is a exotic flowering plant, with several hundred species, and native to warm, tropical climates. Large, trumpet-shaped flowers come in a variety of colors, including white, pink, red, orange, purple, or yellow. Hibiscus is widely known as the “Botox Plant”, and a strong natural source of Vitamin C, antioxidants (“anthocyanosides”), alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs), and mucilage (a potent skin moisturizer). Anthocyanosides protect from damaging free radicals which cause premature aging of skin, in addition to possessing anti-inflammatory and astringent properties (controlling greasy skin and tightening large pores), helping to control acne breakouts. AHAs (such as citric and malic acid) are powerful exfoliators without damaging the skin’s natural moisture. AHAs increase cell turnover, resulting in smoother, brighter and fresher looking skin.
Note: si SKIN ingredients are not rated as a Sun Protection Factor (SPF).