Seaweeds (Marine Macroalgae):
Are an abundant natural source of amino acids, vitamins and minerals, with clinically proven, safe and effective anti-aging and skin rejuvenating properties. There are three main categories of seaweed: green, brown and red - each with its own unique bioactive compounds and, therefore, unique skin hydrating, protective and reparative benefits.
Red Seaweed (Palmaria Palmata):
Kelp (Bladderwrack, Laminaria Digitata, Ascophyllum Nodosum):
Blue-green algae (aphanizomenon flos-aquae) is a wild microalgae that contains a wide spectrum of important phytonutrients. It is an excellent source of more than 20 antioxidants, 68 minerals and 70 trace elements, fatty acids, vitamins, all amino acids (essential and non-essential) and important enzymes. The high nutrient density and their synergistic effects, in addition to ease of absorption, enables blue-green algae to deliver maximum benefits to the skin. A powerful cosmetic ingredient, blue-green algae is packed with all of the necessary nutrients to deliver superior, long-lasting skin toning and hydrating benefits. Our skincare formulation of blue-green algae helps to detoxify and replenish your skin, purifying and restoring the skin’s vitality, and revealing a more radiant, youthful-looking complexion with the appearance of fewer fine lines and wrinkles.
Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring xanthophyll carotenoid that is found in crustaceans (lobsters, shrimps and crabs) and fish (salmon). It is one of nature's most potent antioxidants - neutralizing free radicals or other oxidants, without being destroyed or becoming a pro-oxidant in the process. In terms of antioxidant power, astaxanthin is 6,000 times stronger than vitamin C, 800 times stronger than CoQ10, 550 times stronger than vitamin E and green tea catechins, and 40 times more powerful than beta-carotene. Astaxanthin exerts benefits on the skin via its potent antioxidant, photoprotective (UV-blocking) and anti-inflammatory effects. In several clinical studies, astaxanthin has been shown to increase skin hydration and elasticity, reduce erythema, decrease hyperpigmentation, and promote skin smoothness, by decreasing fine lines and wrinkles
Retinoids (Natural Vitamin A Derivatives):
Encourage skin cell turnover and epidermal regeneration, helping to improve skin texture and elasticity, and reduce hyperpigmentation and other signs of photoaging.
Vitamin A is an important constituent of the outer skin layer, where it plays a crucial role in epidermal cell turnover and renewal. Exposure to sunlight and the aging process can lead to deficiency of epidermal Vitamin A. Natural Vitamin A derivatives (retinoids) exert protective and reparative effects against UV-mediated skin injury, including redness (erythema) and DNA damage. Vitamin A acts to reduce the signs of photoaging and promote skin rejuvenation. Combining retinoids with antioxidants can potentiate their beneficial effects in the skin, leading to improvement of skin appearance and reversal of photodamage.
Normal, youthful skin contains high concentrations of vitamin C, stimulating collagen synthesis and protecting against UV-induced injury. It is known that Vitamin C levels are lower in aged or photodamaged skin, associated with excessive exposure to oxidant stress via pollutants or solar irradiation. Studies have shown that use of Vitamin C derivatives stimulates regeneration of healthy skin - improving the appearance of wrinkles and other features of photodamage, promoting wound healing, and decreasing melanin pigment synthesis (skin lightening).
Human skin contains more Vitamin E than any other nutrient. This highlights the importance of this antioxidant, which renders free radicals harmless, absorbs UVB light and decreases DNA damage. Combining topical Vitamins E & Vitamin C enhances the photoprotective effect of sunscreen use. In addition to protecting and hydrating cells, Vitamin E plays a synergistic role with Vitamin C in the synthesis of collagen in the skin, helping to smooth fine lines and even out skin tone.
Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) is an important component of the body’s co-enzyme system. These molecules are essential in many cellular metabolic enzymatic processes. In the skin, such chemical reactions are crucial for several functions, including retaining moisture, maintaining oil balance, and improving microcirculation.
Niacinamide increases production of epidermal skin barrier lipids (ceramides, free fatty acids and cholesterol), decreases sebum production (making skin less oily and acne-prone), and blocks the transfer of melanosomes from melanocytes to keratinocytes (i.e., depigmenting). The latter effect distinguishes niacinamide from other “lightening” compounds that directly inhibit tyrosinase (a key enzyme in melanin production).
Topical application of niacinamide significantly reduces transepidermal water loss and increases stratum corneum hydration. Studies support the use of niacinamide in cosmetic formulations, because of its clinically relevant barrier-protective, anti-inflammatory and skin lightening effects.
Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant, naturally found in human cells, comprised of 3 amino acids namely cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid. It functions to neutralizes free radicals, stimulate the immune system and detoxify the body.
Glutathione has additional anti-melanogenic properties - inhibiting tyrosinase (a key enzyme in melanogenesis), via direct inhibition and indirect inactivation. Topical use of glutathione has been shown to lead to reduction in melanin pigment and improved moisture levels in the skin compared to placebo, with no adverse drug effects.
A wild-growing herb (Plantago major) found in most gardens (not to be confused with the green skinned cousin of bananas!). Plantain possesses strong natural antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties. It has a long history in herbal medicine and use as a traditional cure for a variety of skin conditions, including sunburns, eczema and other skin disorders. Plantain extract contains Allantoin, a powerful skin soothing agent that encourages cell growth.
An antioxidant is any substance that reduces oxidative damage to cells or its constituents caused by free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive chemicals which attack molecules that make up DNA, proteins and cell membranes. Any compound in your body that contains an oxygen molecule (reactive oxygen species), such as hydrogen peroxide, can trigger free radical production. This destructive process occurs many thousand times each day in our body cells - resulting in damage that impairs cell function, metabolism and growth.
To protect cells against damage by free radicals, our bodies have evolved a highly sophisticated and complex antioxidant protection system (with both endogenous and exogenous components). This system functions synergistically to neutralize reactive oxygen species. There are four main types of antioxidants:
Both exposure to UV light and chronologic aging deplete our skin's naturally occurring antioxidants, which the skin uses to defend itself against free radical attacks. Free radical damage leads to the breakdown of dermal collagen fibers, with the development of fine wrinkles and other cutaneous signs of aging. Topical application of antioxidants has been scientifically proven to provide protection from sun-induced damage, slow down the skin aging process, and ultimately improve the skin’s overall appearance..
Green tea extracts contain catechin-derived polyphenols, such as epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatequina gelato, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate. These antioxidant polyphenols demonstrate excellent skin penetration and retention, and are known to be potent free radical scavengers. Green tea extracts also inhibit the more acute effects of UV exposure, that include erythema (redness) and inflammation. Additional moisturizing and protective benefits are provided by other ingredients present in green tea extracts, such as amino acids, lipids (linoleic and linolenic acids), vitamins (B, C and E), caffeine, and pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoids). Clinical studies have shown that cosmetic formulations containing green tea extracts result in improvement in skin texture and appearance, increased elastic tissue in the skin, and enhanced immediate and long-term skin hydration. This important moisturizing effect of green tea extracts leads to improved skin microrelief (skin texture), with reduced skin roughness and enhanced skin smoothness.
Hibiscus is a exotic flowering plant, with several hundred species, and native to warm, tropical climates. Large, trumpet-shaped flowers come in a variety of colors, including white, pink, red, orange, purple, or yellow. Hibiscus is widely known as the “Botox Plant”, and a strong natural source of Vitamin C, antioxidants (“anthocyanosides”), alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs), and mucilage (a potent skin moisturizer). Anthocyanosides protect from damaging free radicals which cause premature aging of skin, in addition to possessing anti-inflammatory and astringent properties (controlling greasy skin and tightening large pores), helping to control acne breakouts. AHAs (such as citric and malic acid) are powerful exfoliators without damaging the skin’s natural moisture. AHAs increase cell turnover, resulting in smoother, brighter and fresher looking skin.
Resveratrol is a polyphenol produced by plants as a defense mechanism against UV radiation, stress and disease. Natural sources include the the skin of grapes, various berries, peanuts, pomegranate, and eucalyptus. Resveratrol has powerful antioxidants and anti-aging properties by: Scavenging existing free radicals & preventing their formation.Resveratrol protects, shields and improves: